Access Keys:
Skip to content (Access Key - 0)

Activity 2.1.2 - Maize Traits for Fieldbooks

Trait Definition Identifier
     
Agronomic trait Describes important agronomic characters of Maize. CO_322:0000002
100 kernel weight Weight of 100 kernels randomly selected from the total kernels. CO_322:0000133
1000 kernel weight Weight of 1000 kernels randomly selected from the total kernels and adjusted to 10% moisture content. CO_322:0000169
anthesis silking interval Determined by i) measuring the number of days after planting until 50 % of the plants shed pollen (anthesis date, AD) and show silks (silking date, SD), respectively, and ii) calculating: ASI = SD - AD. CO_322:0000001
bad husk cover Percentage of all plants with bad husk cover. CO_322:0000150
chupon percentage Multiple cobs, Chupones, percentage of plants with more than one cob growing in same place. CO_322:0000151
days to ear leaf senescence Number of days from sowing to when 50% of the plants have a dry ear leaf. CO_322:0000143
days to maturity Number of days required from seeding to seed/grain ripening. CO_322:0000032
ear dry weight Weight of ear taken after drying at 60-70 degree centigrade for 1-2 days. CO_322:0000022
ear growth Difference between the ear length (cm) measured at zero day pollen shedding and 7 days after pollen shedding. CO_322:0000145
ear growth rate Measure of growth rate of ear in percentage. CO_322:0000016
ear number per plant Number of ears per plant. Counted as number of ears with at least one fully developed grain divided by the number of harvested plants. An EPP of below 1.0 indicates partial barreness, an EPP of above 1.0 indicates partial prolificacy. CO_322:0000021
foliage rating Rating of total leaf surface where: 3, small; 5, intermediate; 7 large. CO_322:0000173
grain texture A measure of the variation of the intensity of a surface, quantifying properties such as smoothness, coarseness and regularity of the grain. It is rated on a scale from 1 (= flint) to 5 (=dent). CO_322:0000039
grain yield Shelled grain weight per plot adjusted to 12.5% grain moisture and converted to tons per hectare. CO_322:0000005
growing degree units to anthesis Heat units (growing-degree units) between planting and 50% anthesis; commercial model (10,30). CO_322:0000036
growing degree units to maturity Heat units (growing-degree units) between planting and black-layer formation, commercial model (10,30). CO_322:0000037
husk cover Measured as percentage of plants with ears that are not completely covered by the husks. CO_322:0000149
plant aspect Qualitative score of the visual appeal (ideotype) of the plant. In another word, it rates characteristics such as plant and ear height, uniformity of plants, disease and insect damage, and lodging on a scale of 1 to 5 where 1 is excellent and 5 is poor. CO_322:0000011
plant height Height between the base of a plant to the insertion of the first tassel branch of the same plant in centimeter (cm). CO_322:0000007
plant number Number of plants per plot. CO_322:0000008
relative grain yield Relative grain yield expressed as percentage of the mean grain yield of the trial. Values above 100% indicate above-average performance; values below 100% indicate below-average performance. CO_322:0000147
root capacitance Estimation of root mass at the end of the stress using an electrical capacitance meter. CO_322:0000102
root lodging Measured as percentage of plants that show root lodging, i.e. those stems that are inclining by more than 45°C. CO_322:0000034
selection index The selection index gives a single measure of the hybrid & aposis worth based on information for up to five traits. CO_322:0000116
senescence Leaf senescence score on a scale from 0 to 10. Taken during grain-filling by estimating the percentage of dead leaf area and dividing it by 10 (i.e. 0 = 0% dead leaf area, 2 = 20% dead leaf area etc). CO_322:0000012
sheath pubescence Presence and intensity of hairs (sparse or intermediate or dense) on the surface of the leaf sheath. CO_322:0000163
silk growth Difference between the silk length (cm) measured at zero day pollen shedding and 7 days after pollen shedding. CO_322:0000144
silk growth rate Measurement of growth rate of silk in percentage. CO_322:0000014
silk length Measurement of growth of silk in centimeters. CO_322:0000013
stem color Visual rating of stem color. CO_322:0000162
stem lodging Measured as percentage of plants that show stem lodging, i.e. those stems that are broken below the ear. CO_322:0000035
tassel branches dry weight The dry weight of tassel branches (grams) just prior to pollen shed. CO_322:0000027
tassel branches number Number of branches on tassel. CO_322:0000028
tillering index Number of tillers per plant. CO_322:0000059
total grain weevil number Number of grain weevils hatching and emerging from an infested grain sample within a given period. Large values indicate susceptibility to grain weevils, small values indicate partial resistance to grain weevils. CO_322:0000130
weevil grain weight loss Loss of weight of the grain samples caused by weevil feeding during a given period of incubation. Large values indicate susceptibility to weevils. CO_322:0000131
     
Morphological trait Describes important morphological characters of maize. CO_322:0000174
ear diameter Ear diameter measured in centimeter at the central part of uppermost ear. CO_322:0000170
ear height Height between the base of a plant to the insertion of the top (uppermost) ear of the same plant in centimeter (cm). CO_322:0000017
ear leaf length Measurement of length ear leaf (blade) in centimeter. CO_322:0000019
ear leaf weight Weight of ear leaf (blade) in gm. CO_322:0000112
ear length Measurement of ear growth in centimeter. CO_322:0000015
ear position A ratio of ear height to plant height. Small values indicate low ear position; large values indicate high ear position. CO_322:0000020
grain color Kernel or grain color whether white, yellow, purple, variegated, brown, orange, mottled, white cap, red etc. CO_322:0000146
kernel length Average of 10 consecutive kernels from one row in the middle of the uppermost ear. CO_322:0000172
kernel number Calculated as grain weight divided by single kernel weight. CO_322:0000010
kernel row arrangement Visual assessment of kernel row arrangement where: 1, regular; 2, irregular; 3, straight and 4, spiral. CO_322:0000166
kernel row number Count number of kernel rows in the central part of the uppermost ear. CO_322:0000167
kernel type Visual rating of kernel type from 1 -11 where 1= floury, 3= dent, 6= flint, 7= pop, 8= sweet, 9= Opaque 2/QPM, 10 Tunicate and 11= waxy. CO_322:0000168
kernel width Measurement of kernel width in millimeter, CO_322:0000175
leaf length Measurement of leaf length in centimeter. CO_322:0000025
leaf width Measurement of leaf width in centimeter. CO_322:0000026
tassel size A 1-3 visual rating of tassel size after milk stage. The higher the rating the larger the tassel. 1= large 2= normal 3= small CO_322:0000038
tassel type Branching type of tassel whether primary or primary-secondary or primary-secondary-tertiary. CO_322:0000164
uppermost ear shape Shape of uppermost ear whether cylindrical or cylindrical-conical or conical or round. CO_322:0000171
     
Physiological trait Describes important physiological characters of maize. CO_322:0000006
abscisic acid content Measures the abscisic acid content in a plant or plant part. CO_322:0000113
abscisic acid to sugar content ratio A ratio of abscisic acid to the sugar content in a plant or plant part. CO_322:0000124
canopy temperature Measured in several rows simultaneously to allow a comparison. Thermal images will be taken using an Infrared Camera placed several meters above the canopy. CO_322:0000142
chlorophyll content Measurement of chlorophyll amount in green tissue of plant or plant part. CO_322:0000003
ear leaf chlorophyll content Amount of chlorophyll content in the ear leaf measured at the beginning and the end of the stress using a SPAD meter. CO_322:0000105
glucose content Amount of glucose present in the plant or plant part. CO_322:0000115
leaf temperature Measured as absolute temperature or as a difference between air and leaf temperature by as infrared thermometer. CO_322:0000135
normalized difference vegetation index Measured with a portable field spectroradiometer (e.g. GreenSeeker). The sensor placed ca 60 cm above the plants. CO_322:0000132
osmotic adjustment The ability of the plant to adjust the osmotic potential under stress conditions. CO_322:0000117
osmotic potential A measure of the potential of water to move between regions of differing concentrations across a water-permeable membrane. CO_322:0000118
photochemical radiation index Measured in leaves with a hyperspectral spectroradiometer at anthesis and 2-3 weeks later. CO_322:0000140
proline content Amino acid proline content in a plant or plant part. CO_322:0000119
stable nitrogen isotope composition Determined in the same kernels used for stable oxygen isotope enrichment analyses. Measured using an Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer. CO_322:0000139
stable oxygen isotope enrichment in kernels Samples analyzed by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. One measurement per row from the pooled set of mature kernels. Measured In subsets of inbreds and testcrosses with contrasting yields. CO_322:0000136
stomatal conductance Measured with a portable porometer. CO_322:0000134
sucrose content The amount of sucrose present in the plant or the plant part. CO_322:0000120
sugar content Amount of sugar present in the plant or the plant part. CO_322:0000114
total mineral content Determined in the same kernels used for Stable oxygen isotope enrichment analyses. Measured as ash content directly with a furnace or indirectly through Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS). CO_322:0000137
total nitrogen content Determined in the same kernels used for stable oxygen isotope enrichment analyses. Measured using an Elemental Analyzer (if analyzed together with stable nitrogen isotope composition or through NIRS when analyzed alone. CO_322:0000138
water index Measured in leaves with a hyperspectral spectroradiometer at anthesis and 2-3 weeks later. CO_322:0000141
young leaf chlorophyll content Amount of chlorophyll content in the young leaf measured at the beginning and the end of the stress using a SPAD meter. CO_322:0000024
     
Phenological trait Describes traits associated with maize flowering. CO_322:0000023
days to anthesis Number of days from sowing to when 50% of the plants shed pollen. CO_322:0000030
days to silking Number of days from sowing to when 50% of the plants silk. CO_322:0000031
female flowering Traits associated with the timing of the flowering of female flowers. CO_322:0000004
male flowering Traits associated with the timing of the flowering of male flowers. CO_322:0000009
     
Quality trait Describes important quality related traits of maize CO_322:0000029
ear aspect Visual qualitative rating of the ear, usually scored on a scale 1-5. A score of 1 indicates that the harvested ears are free from disease and insect damage, ear size is uniform, large, well-filled ears. A score of 5 indicates that ears are poor, variable, small, and partially filled ears. CO_322:0000018
endosperm hardness Measurement of quality of endosperm, usually rated on a scale 1-5 where 1, hard and transparent grains; 5, soft and opaque grains. CO_322:0000041
grain moisture Percentage of moisture as measured at harvest. CO_322:0000033
iron content Total iron content in grain. CO_322:0000110
lysine content Total percentage of lysine. CO_322:0000104
lysine per endosperm Percentage of lysine in grain endosperm on a dry matter basis. CO_322:0000109
lysine per whole grain Percentage of lysine in whole grain m on a dry matter basis. CO_322:0000108
protein content Total protein content in grain. CO_322:0000121
protein per endosperm Percentage of protein in grain endosperm on a dry matter basis. CO_322:0000123
protein per whole grain Percentage of protein in whole grain on a dry matter basis. CO_322:0000122
pro-vitaminA content Total pro-vitaminA content in grain. CO_322:0000125
seed viability Seed viability is measured after 3 month at 100% relative humidity and 30 degrees C, 1 = 100-80% germination, 5 = 0-20% germination. CO_322:0000040
starch content Total starch content in grain. CO_322:0000126
tryptophan content Total percentage of tryptophan. CO_322:0000103
tryptophan per endosperm Percentage of tryptophan in grain endosperm on dry matter basis. CO_322:0000106
tryptophan per whole grain Percentage of tryptophan in whole grain on dry matter basis. CO_322:0000107
zinc content Total zinc content in grain. CO_322:0000111
     
Stress trait Response by the plant in terms of resistivity or sensitivity to abiotic or/and biotic stresses. CO_322:0000042
Abiotic stress trait Response by the plant in terms of resistivity or sensitivity to abiotic stress. CO_322:0000043
leaf rolling Leaf rolling score measured under drought stress on a scale from 1 (unrolled, turgid leaves, desirable) to 5 (severely rolled leaves, undesirable). CO_322:0000160
     
Biotic stress trait Response by the plant in terms of resistivity or sensitivity to biotic stress. CO_322:0000044
bacterial disease The trait is scored for the response to the diseases caused by several bacteria. CO_322:0000045
bacterial leaf stripe Bacterial leaf stripe (Pseudomonas rubrilinians) symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infection) to 5 (= severely diseased). CO_322:0000051
bacterial stalk rot Bacterial stalk rot (Erwinia chrysanthemi) measured as percentage of plants affected. CO_322:0000052
corn stunt Corn stunt complex (corn stunt spiroplasma, maize bushy stunt phytoplasma [= mycoplasma], maize rayado fino virus) measured as percentage of plants affected. CO_322:0000049
maize bushy stunt Maize bushy stunt (caused by mycoplasma like organism, MLO) symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infection) to 5 (= severely diseased). CO_322:0000053
stewarts wilt Stewart's wilt (Erwinia stewartii) measured as percentage of plants affected. CO_322:0000050
     
fungal disease The trait is scored for the response to the diseases caused by several fungi. CO_322:0000046
anthracnose leaf blight Anthracnose (Colletotrichum graminicola) measured as percentage of plants affected. CO_322:0000058
aspergillus ear rot Aspergillus ear rot symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infection) to 5 (= severely diseased). CO_322:0000072
banded leaf and sheath blight Banded leaf and sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani f. sp. sasakii) symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infection) to 5 (= severely diseased). CO_322:0000084
black bundle Black bundle (Acremonium strictum) measured as percentage of plants affected. CO_322:0000060
brown spot Brown spot (Physoderma maydis) symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infection) to 5 (= severely diseased). CO_322:0000086
brown stripe downy mildew Brown stripe downy mildew (Sclerophthora rayssiae var. zeae) measured as percentage of plants affected. CO_322:0000078
charcoal rot Charcoal rot or (Macrophomina phaseolina) measured as percentage of plants affected. CO_322:0000062
common rust Score for the severity of common rust, (In highlands and mid altitude, Puccinia sorghi) symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infection) to 5 (= severely diseased). CO_322:0000085
common smut Common smut (Ustilago maydis) measured as percentage of plants affected. The trait is scored for response to the common smut disease caused by Ustilago maydis (syn. U. zeae). CO_322:0000082
crazy top downy mildew Crazy top (Sclerophthora macrospora) measured as percentage of plants affected. CO_322:0000081
curvularia leaf spot Curvularia leaf spot (Curvularia spp.) symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infection) to 5 (= severely diseased). CO_322:0000089
downy mildew Downy mildews (several species of the genera Peronosclerospora, Sclerospora, and Sclerophthora) symptoms measured as percentage of plants affected. CO_322:0000075
ear rot Percentage of all ears that are rotten. CO_322:0000068
fusarium ear rot Fusarium ear rot symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infection) to 5 (= severely diseased). CO_322:0000069
fusarium graminearum ear rot Fusarium graminearum ear rot symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infection) to 5 (= severely diseased). CO_322:0000070
fusarium graminearum stalk rot Fusarium graminearum stalk rot measured as percentage of plants affected. CO_322:0000065
fusarium moniliforme ear rot Fusarium moniliforme ear rot symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infection) to 5 (= severely diseased). CO_322:0000071
fusarium moniliforme stalk rot Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot measured as percentage of plants affected. CO_322:0000064
fusarium stalk rot Fusarium stalk rot measured as percentage of plants affected. CO_322:0000063
gray leaf spot Gray leaf spot (Cerospora zeae-maydis) symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infection) to 5 (= severely diseased). CO_322:0000088
head smut Head smut (Sphacelotheca reiliana) measured as percentage of plants affected. CO_322:0000083
java downy mildew Java downy mildew (Peronosclerospora maydis) measured as percentage of plants affected. CO_322:0000079
late wilt Late wilt (Cephalosporium maydis) measured as percentage of plants affected. CO_322:0000161
leaf spot Leaf spot symptoms (caused by several fungi) rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infection) to 5 (= severely diseased). CO_322:0000087
maydis leaf blight (southern corn leaf blight, SCBL) Maydis leaf blight (Bipolaris maydis = Helminthosporium maydis) symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infection) to 5 (= severely diseased). CO_322:0000057
penicillium ear rot Penicillium ear rot symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infection) to 5 (= severely diseased). CO_322:0000074
phaeosphaeria leaf spot Phaeosphaeria leaf spot (Phaeosphaeria maydis) symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infection) to 5 (= severely diseased). CO_322:0000090
philippine downy mildew Philippine downy mildew (Peronosclerospora philippinensis) measured as percentage of plants affected. CO_322:0000076
polysora rust Polysora rust (in lowlands Puccinia polysora) symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infection) to 5 (= severely diseased). CO_322:0000055
pythium stalk rot Pythium stalk rot (Pythium spp.) measured as percentage of plants affected. CO_322:0000067
rust Multiple rust pathogens measured on scale 1_5. CO_322:0000054
seedling disease Seedling disease measured as percentage of plants affected. CO_322:0000093
sorghum downy mildew Sorghum downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi) measured as percentage of plants affected. CO_322:0000080
stalk rot Stalk rot from multiple pathogens or an unidentified pathogen measured as percentage of plants affected. CO_322:0000061
stenocarpella ear rot Stenocarpella (=Diplodia) ear rot symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infection) to 5 (= severely diseased). CO_322:0000073
stenocarpella stalk rot Stenocarpella (=Diplodia) stalk rot measured as percentage of plants affected. CO_322:0000066
sugarcane downy mildew Sugarcane downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sacchari) measured as percentage of plants affected. CO_322:0000077
sugarcane mosaic virus Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) measured as percentage of plants affected. CO_322:0000101
tarspot complex Tarspot complex (Phyllachora maydis, Monographella maydis) symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infection) to 5 (= severely diseased). CO_322:0000091
tropical rust Tropical rust (Physopella zeae) symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infection) to 5 (= severely diseased). CO_322:0000056
turcicum leaf blight (northern corn leaf blight, NCBL) Turcicum leaf blight (Exserohilum turcicum = Helminthosporium turcicum) symptoms rated on a scale from 1 (= clean, no infection) to 5 (= severely diseased). CO_322:0000092
     
viral disease The trait is scored for the response to the diseases caused by several viruses. CO_322:0000047
maize dwarf mosaic virus Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) measured as percentage of plants affected. CO_322:0000099
maize mosaic virus Maize mosaic virus (MMV) measured as percentage of plants affected. CO_322:0000096
maize rayado fino virus Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) measured as percentage of plants affected. CO_322:0000095
maize rough dwarf virus Maize rough dwarf virus (MRDV) measured as percentage of plants affected. CO_322:0000097
maize streak virus Maize streak virus symptoms (MSV) measured as percentage of plants affected. CO_322:0000100
maize stripe virus Maize stripe virus (MStV) measured as percentage of plants affected. CO_322:0000098
mal de rio cuarto virus Mal de rio cuarto virus (MRCV) measured as percentage of plants affected. CO_322:0000094
     
insect damage The trait is scored for the response to the damages caused by insects. CO_322:0000048
aphid damage Aphids (Rhopalosiphum maidis) damage measured on a scale 1 (= no infestation) to 5 (= severely infested). CO_322:0000128
army worm damage Army worm (syn. Spodoptera exempta) damage measured on a scale 1 (= no infestation) to 5 (= severely infested). CO_322:0000154
busseola damage (african stem borer, b fusca) Count of the number of Busseola larvae. Higher the number indicates susceptibility. CO_322:0000152
chilo damage Chilo (Chilo partellus) damage measured on a scale 1 (= no infestation) to 5 (= severely infested). CO_322:0000155
diabrotica damage Plant damaged caused by daibrotica. CO_322:0000156
diatraea damage Plant damaged caused by daitraea. CO_322:0000157
ear damage Amount of ear damage caused by ear rot and/or insects, etc. CO_322:0000165
earworm damage Ear worm, Heliothis, measures as cm of feeding. 0 - no ear damage, 1 - 1 cm, + 1 for each additional cm of feeding. CO_322:0000153
large grain borer damage Large grain borer (Prostephanus truncatus) damage rated on selection index or natural infestation (1-10) adjusted to 1-5 where (= no infestation) to 5 (= severely infested). CO_322:0000127
maize weevil damage Maize weevil damage measured based on a selection index or natural infestation (1-10) adjusted to 1-5 where 1 (= no infestation) to 5 (= severely infested). CO_322:0000129
stem borer damage Includes different stem borers such as Chilo partellus, sesamia spp. and spodoptera. Scale is 1-5. CO_322:0000159
     
striga damage 1-5 scale based on number of Striga hermonthica plants emerged or selection index (e.g. Striga emerged plus grain yield depression). Large values indicate susceptibility to Striga, small values indicate partial resistance to Striga. CO_322:0000158
Adaptavist Theme Builder (3.3.3-conf210) Powered by Atlassian Confluence 2.10.3, the Enterprise Wiki.
Free theme builder license